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The Department's work includes customs, border, and immigration enforcement, emergency response to natural and manmade disasters, antiterrorism work, and cybersecurity. Structure and Organization. The Office of Homeland Security clearly has the mandate to take up this issue—indeed, it is uniquely positioned, given its links with state and local governments. Whether such a step would enhance the influence of the office is a matter of debate. Senate. He would, in effect, replace OMB for the domestic counterterrorism budget and would carry out a parallel but similar budget process. What would enable the Office of Homeland Security to play a more significant role in the budget process? Customs and Border Protection (CBP) officers in Louisville intercepted a shipment, arriving from Hong Kong, manifested as a jewelry set containing more than 1,200 pieces.On January 5, CBP officers in Louisville halted the shipment that was bound for Hollywood, Florida. [2] Over time, the coordinating and advising functions have shifted from the National Security Advisor to the NSC staff, which has grown to more than 100 members. While the Department of Defense is charged with managing military action abroad, the Department of Homeland Security is focused on the civilian sphere and protecting Americans within the … The 22-agency reorganization began on March 1, 2003, when federal agencies such as the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the Secret Service, U.S. Customs, and Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) were brought \"under one roof,\" although the new agency lacks a permanent residence at this time. security risk if, in the discretion of the Secretary of Homeland Security, it presents a high risk of significant adverse consequences for human life or health, national security and/or critical economic assets if subjected to terrorist attack, compromise, infiltration, or exploitation. The choice is not between a White House homeland security office and a homeland security agency. By executive order, he created within the White House an Office of Homeland Security, to be headed by the Assistant to the President for Homeland Security. For either approach, the Office of Homeland Security would need to have a sizeable and dedicated budgetary staff. RAND's publications do not necessarily reflect the opinions of its research clients and sponsors. The President also established a new interagency coordinating body, the Homeland Security Council. For example, H.R. This will require: (1) enhanced regionalization of DHS, achieved through the networking of stakeholders within and between DHS operational regions; (2)...Continue Reading Where will attention be focused, on federal programs and activities or on those of the states? The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) should be a key building block in this effort." Preparation for and mitigation of the consequences of terrorist threats or attacks. The Department of Homeland Security was established in 2002, combining 22 different federal departments and agencies into a unified, integrated Cabinet agency. [23] It will consist of representatives of all the departments and White House offices involved in counterterrorism activities and will be chaired by a Special Advisor to the President for Cyberspace Security. He is "primarily" responsible for coordinating the domestic response to terrorist attacks within the United States and is to be the "principal point of contact for and to the President" with respect to coordination of such efforts, while coordinating with the National Security Advisor "as appropriate." The congressional bills establishing a new homeland security department or agency favor a more decentralized approach, whereby an operating agency would be responsible for many of the coordinating activities. Not surprisingly, the focus of Congress has largely been on assuring its own statutory and budget prerogatives. [40] The National Commission on Terrorism called for the development of detailed contingency plans to "transfer lead federal agency authority to the Department of Defense if necessary during a catastrophic terrorist attack or prior to an imminent attack.[41]. The Deputy National Security Advisor for Combating Terrorism has a broader global mandate, but he is dual-hatted and as a deputy lacks the necessary stature. This new adviser will report to both the Assistant to the President for National Security and the Assistant to the President for Homeland Security and will have a separate staff within the White House office. The Bush administration's approach is to introduce overlapping membership in the NSC and the Homeland Security Council. The President could have given this role to the National Security Advisor, but the most compelling challenge is obviously domestic, not foreign. What is surprising is the limited focus and authorities of the new Office of Homeland Security. Some issues will arise as a result of the organizational model that was chosen; others will emerge as the council and office seek to carry out their substantive responsibilities. The Bush administration, in making the Assistant to the President for Homeland Security its public spokesman during the anthrax scare, took a major step toward an operational role. The National Drug Control Strategy provides the ONDCP Director with a platform for highlighting priorities and the interrelationships among various antidrug programs, but it is not a vehicle for actually coordinating the various antidrug activities. This act consolidated within the Justice Department all federal domestic and international anti-drug-trafficking and enforcement activities. 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